Which means, Anatomical location, Capabilities, Associated pathology, Scientific significance


Article by Dr Raghuram Y.S. MD (Ay) & Dr Manasa S, B.A.M.S

“Talu” is a phrase used to explain the ‘roof of our mouth’ which is named ‘palate’ in fashionable anatomy.

Anatomically it is a vital construction even in response to Ayurveda as a result of it types a serious and one of many necessary elements of the roots of ‘udakavaha srotas’ i.e. water transporting channels within the physique.

Haven’t we skilled dryness within the roof of our mouth together with dryness within the tongue and lips after we are thirsty?

So the primary indicators of thirst are additionally manifested within the talu vis-à-vis palate. Since thirst is expounded to water deficit within the physique and this water is transported within the water carrying channels and since indicators of thirst are first manifested within the palate / talu – by mathematical equation, part of water conveying channels and their roots are related to talu.

Dosha relation with Talu

Bodhaka Kapha – Mouth is a seat of Bodhaka Kapha which is expounded to style notion and mastication.

Udana Vata – Talu / Palate takes half in speech manufacturing and in response to Ayurveda, Vak Pravritti is among the features of Udana Vata.

Prana Vata – A variant of Prana Vata situated within the navel area is claimed to supply speech when it strikes upwards. Whereas doing so, it touches the oral cavity, tongue and palate.

Dhatu relation with Talu

Talu is predominantly made up of Asthi Dhatu (arduous palate) and Mamsa Dhatu (taste bud).

Talu as Pratyanga

Talu has been included amongst 56 Pratyangas enumerated by Grasp Charaka. Pratyanga means minor organs.

Anatomically, Talu is surrounded by / intently associated to jihwa (tongue), danta (enamel), dantamula (gums) and gala / kantha (throat).

Talu connection to Udakavaha Srotas

Learn extra : Udakavaha Srotas: Channels of water transport, Indicators of harm, Therapy

Udakavaha srotas are the channels within the physique which are supposed to carry water or management the water stability within the physique. This additionally contains the thirst facilities within the physique that are situated within the mind simply above the extent of talu.

उदक वहे द्वे, तयोः मूलं तालु क्लोम च।
तत्र विद्धस्य पिपासा सध्यो मरणं च।(सु.श.9/12)
उदक वहानां स्रोतसां तालु मूलं क्लोम च, प्रदुष्टानां तु खलु एषां इदं विशेष विज्ञानं भवति; तध्यथा – जिह्वा तालु ओष्ठ कण्ठ क्लोम शोषं पिपासां च अति प्रवृद्धं
दृष्ट्वा उदक वहानि अस्य स्रोतांसि प्रदुष्टानि इति विध्यात्।(च.वि.५/७)
udaka vahe dve, tayoḥ mūlaṃ tālu kloma ca|
tatra viddhasya pipāsā sadhyo maraṇaṃ ca|(su.śa.9/12)
udaka vahānāṃ srotasāṃ tālu mūlaṃ kloma ca, praduṣṭānāṃ tu khalu eṣāṃ idaṃ viśeṣa vijñānaṃ bhavati; tadhyathā – jihvā tālu oṣṭha kaṇṭha kloma śoṣaṃ pipāsāṃ ca ati pravṛddhaṃ
dṛṣṭvā udaka vahāni asya srotāṃsi praduṣṭāni iti vidhyāt|(ca.vi.5/7)

Based on Sushruta, one of many roots of origin of water transporting and regulating channels is talu and the opposite is kloma.

Talu on this context ought to be taken because the palate or roof of our mouth cavity which lies in touch with the higher floor of our tongue. Each time we really feel thirsty, the thirst is first manifested within the palate adopted by the lips, gums and throat.

The opposite construction chargeable for water transport and regulation within the physique is Kloma – a controversial organ. Its detailed rationalization just isn’t out there within the Ayurveda texts nevertheless it has been in comparison with trachea, pharynx, pancreas, lungs, gall bladder and in addition water regulating facilities within the mind by many specialists. We won’t be discussing this organ on this context.

Grasp Charaka too has opined the identical concerning the roots of udakavaha srotas being talu and kloma.

Significance of figuring out the Talu

Signs of blockage, injury or harm to the Udakavaha srotas and their relationship with talu

Pipasa / Trishna – Thirst is the primary symptom manifested as an impact of blockage, injury or harm to the water transporting channels and this thirst, as already mentioned, is manifested within the talu i.e. palate.

Sadhyo Maranam – Demise would possibly happen when there may be extreme life threatening dehydration which has not been compensated for an extended length and which can’t be reversed.

Grasp Charaka mentions dryness and emaciation of tongue, palate, lips, kloma, throat and extreme thirst amongst signs of vitiation or injury to udakavaha srotas.

Right here we will see that each Charaka and Sushruta have accepted the identical roots i.e. talu and kloma.

On this context we are going to solely focus on the talu.

Talu as a root of water conveying system – Right here, roots means locations of origin or controlling stations regulating water stability within the physique. When there may be imbalance of water controlling and transportation mechanism to various proportions the above mentioned signs together with thirst and dryness within the talked about areas of the physique together with talu manifest. The injury could happen to the talu from exterior harm or inside injury brought on by vitiated doshas.

Vitiation of udakavaha srotas displays primarily within the type of thirst i.e. need of water which may be a mirrored image of imbalance or deprivation of water within the physique within the type of acute or lengthy standing scarcity.

The treatment for that is water stability and restoring the water within the physique. This may be achieved by common consumption of fine portions of water till dehydration is gone.

The treatment for vitiation of udakavaha srotas is commonly the identical because the treatment / remedy of thirst each concentrating on restoring the water stability within the physique. When that is carried out, the thirst is quenched. With this the talu as soon as once more will get again its moistness.

Dryness of talu, an indicator of water dynamics within the physique – So, trishna – thirst is among the indicators which point out each, water stability and imbalance within the physique by reacting to each these circumstances. When there may be dehydration talu will get dry indicating the thirst reflex. The severity of dryness and thirst relies on the gradient and severity of dehydration within the physique. Alternatively, the palate additionally reacts when water shops are balanced by regaining its wetness signaling the tip of thirst episode. This cycle repeats all through our life and retains alerting us to maintain ourselves hydrated. So, talu is a vital parameter to evaluate the water stability and imbalance within the physique and that signifies the need of figuring out talu as a part of udakavaha srotas.

Talu is a controlling station and water regulator heart / meter – Seeing talu as an element and parcel of udakavaha srotas it will possibly both be a controlling station of water regulation or a web site the place the signs of water imbalance is first manifested. The second seems to be extra logical. If we contemplate the ‘water regulating or thirst regulating facilities situated within the mind’ above the extent of palate, talu can be thought-about as a controlling station of water stability.

Talu is the primary indicator of thirst and water imbalance / deficit within the physique – Talu or palate is the primary a part of our physique which signifies ‘need of water’ within the type of thirst. When thirst is extreme the palate even sticks to the tongue. Lips, gums, throat and tongue additionally get dried after we are thirsty however the first indicators are sometimes given by the palate and therefore are thought-about amongst the roots of water conveying channels. It’s attention-grabbing to notice that lips and so forth haven’t been included within the ‘udakavaha srotas mula’.

Any kind of dehydration is indicated within the talu – To place it in easy phrases, thirst precipitated resulting from any purpose manifests its first indicators within the udakavaha srotas. Placing it the opposite approach, ‘all of the causes of trishna vis-à-vis thirst are the causes of contamination of water conveying channels and vice versa’. Any kind of dehydration produces its preliminary indicators of manifestation in these channels and their roots, talu – palate being one amongst them.

Due to this fact the doctor ought to have a complete data of talu (and kloma) to gauge the water ranges within the physique. This helps her or him to revive water balances and remedy numerous gradients of dehydration, extreme types of which might be deadly. Thirst may also manifest as a illness – trishna roga. Right here the aggravated doshas have an effect on talu. Dryness of talu could also be an indication / symptom of an underlying illness – an acute one or a persistent one. It can be a complication of sure ailments and helps in prognosis of ailments.

Causes for vitiation of Udakavaha srotas:

औष्ण्यात् आमात् भयात् पानात् अति शुष्क अन्न सेवनात्।
अम्बु वाहीनि दुष्यन्ति तृष्णायाः च अति पीडनात्॥(च.वि.५/११)
auṣṇyāt āmāt bhayāt pānāt ati śuṣka anna sevanāt|
ambu vāhīni duṣyanti tṛṣṇāyāḥ ca ati pīḍanāt||(ca.vi.5/11)

–         sizzling meals and comforts
–         presence of merchandise of undigested meals or metabolic toxins within the physique or in circulation (ama)
–         worry
–         extreme consumption of alcohol or dry meals
–         behavior of withholding the urge for consuming water (thirst urge)

Different causes

–         Causes of Trishna
–         Causes of Pitta or Vata vitiation
–         Causes of kapha vitiation
–         Forcibly withholding the urge of reflex of thirst (trishna vega dharana)

The remedy of Udakavaha srotas additionally will likely be in managing the above mentioned circumstances

Contextually we are going to focus on the causes of thirst. The identical causes contaminate or injury the water conveying channels together with talu on the long term.

Causes of Trishna or thirst:

–         Bodily or psychological irritation
–         Worry, grief, anger,
–         Exertion, Exhaustion
–         Fasting in extra
–         Extreme consumption of alcohol
–         Extreme consumption of Alkalis
–         Extreme consumption of bitter, salty, spicy, pungent, dry, un-unctuous meals
–         Depletion of physique tissues
–         Being debilitated by a persistent sickness
–         Extreme administration of therapies like Vamana (therapeutic emesis) and so forth
–         Extreme publicity to Solar
–         Lower of energy or immunity
–         Meals and actions which carry a few pathological improve of Pitta

Talu involvement within the cycle of pathogenesis of trishna vis-à-vis thirst

Pathway 1

Pitta and Vata get aggravated within the physique (because of the above mentioned causes)

They contaminate soumya dhatus (tissues having extra fluidity / water or belonging to kapha group) and deplete their water content material

Later additionally they dry up the Rasavahinis (channels offering vitamin) of the basis of the tongue, throat and palate (talu)

This results in life threatening thirst

No matter amount of water is taken is dried up by morbid vata and pitta

The particular person has urge to drink water often however despite consuming lot of water repeatedly, his thirst stays un-quenched

Thirst manifests in a extreme kind when it occurs in individuals affected by persistent sicknesses

Such Trishna is named Aupasargika Trishna

They’re thus manifested as a complication of another underlying illness. So, in any illness during which trishna i.e. thirst is a symptom, talu is invariably concerned. Dryness of palate and thirst in any illness calls for water substitute.

Pathway 2 (Yogaratnakara)

Consumption of etiological components

Pitta will get accrued within the higher portion of the physique

This pitta will get vitiated together with vata (in the identical area

The vitiated pitta and vata later attain TALU (palate) of the particular person and afflicts it and

Causes Trishna – thirst

This rationalization straight hyperlinks talu with the pathogenesis of thirst and factors that involvement of talu is obligatory within the manifestation of thirst.

Pathway 3 (Charaka)

Etiological components

Aggravation of doshas

Affliction of udakavaha srotas (talu and kloma)

Manifestation of trishna – thirst

Talu as palate is the seat the place thirst is manifested. Talu as hypothalamus situated above the extent of the palate is the controller of water stability within the physique. Right here trishna vis-à-vis thirst is a physiological course of mediated by hypothalamus.

Basic signs of Trishna

सततं यः पिबेत् तोयं न तृप्तिं अधिगच्छति।
पुनः कांक्षति तोयं च तं तृष्ण अर्दितं आदिशेत्॥(यो.र.तृष्णा चिकित्सा.१,२)
satataṃ yaḥ pibet toyaṃ na tṛptiṃ adhigacchati|
punaḥ kāṃkṣati toyaṃ ca taṃ tṛṣṇa arditaṃ ādiśet||(yo.ra.tṛṣṇā cikitsā.1,2)

Thirst just isn’t happy even on repeated consuming of water

The particular person feels to drink water repeatedly and after a brief interval of getting consumed water

Amongst different signs of thirst, mukha shosha – dryness of the mouth and talu, oshta, kanta, jihva karkashatam i.e. roughness of palate, lips, throat and tongue has been talked about.

Among the many signs of doshaja trishna – thirst brought on by vitiated vata, pitta and kapha – shushka asyata (dryness of the mouth), pratata shosha (repeated dryness of the mouth) and shushyati cha ati matram (extreme dryness of the mouth) have been talked about. Although there is no such thing as a point out of talu in these signs we have to perceive that talu can also be part of the mouth / oral cavity and these signs additionally level in the direction of adjustments occurring in talu.

Anana-gala-talu-hridaya shushkata – dryness within the mouth, throat, palate and coronary heart has been talked about among the many signs of Upasargaja Trishna.

Prognosis of Trishna

Learn extra: Charaka Trishna Chikitsa – Dry Mouth- twenty second Chapter

The Trishna with the beneath mentioned accompanying signs is claimed to have dangerous prognosis

–         Talu-oshta-kanta toda daha – pricking ache and burning sensation within the palate, lips, throat
–         Nirgata jihva – tongue protruding out of the mouth
–         Trishna – extreme insupportable thirst

Administration of vitiation of Udakavaha srotas

Contextually we are going to focus on the administration of water conveying channels briefly on this context.

The remedy of vitiation of udakavaha srotas ought to be carried out on the strains of remedy of Trishna (thirst) chikitsa (line of remedy of thirst dysfunction).

Beneath talked about are a number of recipes which might fight extreme thirst, stability concerned doshas and relieve dryness of the palate.


–         Vata assuaging meals and drinks shall be given.
–         Consumption of candy and chilly meals and drinks
–         Therapy of trishna
–         Therapy of daha – burning sensation
–         One shouldn’t forcibly withhold the urge for thirst
–         One shouldn’t withhold any urges forcibly
–         Drink water and hydrate repeatedly
–         Don’t drink water if you find yourself hungry and don’t eat meals if you find yourself thirsty

One shouldn’t forcibly keep away from / withhold the ‘thirst urge’

The signs of ‘forcibly withholding the thirst urge’ and signs of ‘thirst / thirst illness’ are one and the identical. The treatments too are the identical for each circumstances. One shouldn’t withhold the ‘thirst urge’ forcibly.

Basic line of remedy for dryness of palate / thirst

–         Aindra Jalam – rain water blended with honey for consuming
–         Water boiled and ready with Trinapanchamula and added with sugar
–         Laja Mantha – refreshing drink ready by churning barley flour and honey with Aindra Jala
–         Inexperienced gram soup fried in ghee
–         Sizzling milk processed with honey and sugar
–         Pigeon meat soup fried in ghee added with sugar and honey
–         Yavamanda – Barley is boiled with water and its watery half i.e. gruel is collected, blended with honey and sugar and given for consuming
–         Shatadhauta Ghrta ought to be anointed on the physique of the affected person and be given tub tub with chilly water
–         Nasya – nasal drops with milk processed with candy or bitter tasting herbs having chilly efficiency or Jeevaniya Gana group of herbs, with breast milk or camel milk added with sugar or with sugarcane juice
–         Emesis or purgation might be given in extreme aggravation of kapha or pitta inflicting thirst or dryness of palate
–         Juices of pomegranate, Garcinia pedunculata orCitrus medica ought to be given for drink
–         Tapta Jala – heated gold, silver, copper, sand, stones, brick or mud balls shall be dipped in water and that water ought to be given for consuming
–         Chilly water added with honey and sugar
–         Coriander decoction blended with honey and sugar
–         Goat meat soup blended with sugar, ghee and honey
–         Milk processed with candy or bitter tasting herbs, Jeevaniya gana herbs, herbs having chilly efficiency blended with honey and sugar ought to be used for consuming, therapeutic massage and showering and ghee processed with identical herbs ought to be used for consuming, therapeutic massage and as nasal drops
–         Tapta jala – combination of curds, jaggery and water dipped with heated mud balls earthen items and sand ought to be given for consuming
–         Gargles with – cow milk, sugar water, sugarcane juice, jaggery water, honey, juice of Citrus medica or decoction of mango and Syzygium cumini blended with honey
–         Sparsha (contact and put on) – sponging with material dipped in supernatant layer of curd water or fermented medicinal liquid, garland of lotus or gems ought to be worn within the neck,
–         Lepa = paste of pomegranate, Indian jujube, Symplocos racemosa, Limonia acidissima and Citron fruit ought to be utilized on the pinnacle / scalp


–         Milk processed with Jeevaniya Gana teams of herbs (for vata affecting the palate)
–         Juice of Indian fig fruit (Udumbara) blended with sugar or a refreshing drink ready utilizing parched rice (puffed grains) in milk (for pitta affecting the palate)
–         Honey water as refreshing drink i.e. tarpana or natural confection (avaleha) ready with pomegranate or tamarind or with milk, honey, sugar and turmeric powder (for kapha affecting the palate)

Different treatments for thirst and dryness of palate

–         Meat soup for consuming
–         Meat soup with honey
–         Milk or honey blended with water
–         Jaggery water
–         Consuming lot of milk (for debilitated and weak individuals having thirst and dryness of palate)
–         Habit to alcohol could cause extreme thirst and dryness of palate resulting from aggravation of pitta and vata. That is referred to as as madhyaja trishna. For these individuals chilly water tub ought to be given adopted by diluted alcohol (alcohol blended with half amount of water, bitter pomegranate juice, rock salt and different aromatic herbs) or jaggery water.

Pathya – healthful issues for thirst / dryness of palate

Dates, pomegranate, Indian gooseberry, Citrus medica, cow milk, plantain flower, ash gourd, rice grown in sixty days, gruels, flour of puffed grains, rice filterate (anna manda), and sugar are helpful.

Apathya – unwholesome issues for thirst / dryness of palate

Heavy to digest meals, bitter, salty and astringent meals, contaminated water and worsening meals (teekshna ahara) will not be helpful.

Helpful herbs

Dates, raisins, vetiver, sandalwood, Indian gooseberry, Citrus medica, pomegranate, coriander, plantain flower, ash gourd, mango, sugarcane, Syzygium cumini

Secondary manifestation of thirst

Thirst and dryness of palate could happen within the type of a symptom, complication, signal or prognosis or premonitory symptom of another systemic illness. In these circumstances the dryness of the palate will likely be relieved when the illness inflicting it’s handled.

Talugata Roga – Ailments of the palate

तालुगतास्तु – गलशुण्डिका, तुण्डिकेरि, अधुषः, कच्छपः, अर्बुदं मांससङ्घातः, तालुपुप्पुटः, तालुशोषः, तालुपाक इति ॥४०॥
tālugatāstu – galaśuṇḍikā, tuṇḍikeri, adhuṣaḥ, kacchapaḥ, arbudaṃ māṃsasaṅghātaḥ, tālupuppuṭaḥ, tāluśoṣaḥ, tālupāka iti ||40||

Ailments of the palate are as enumerated beneath –

–         Galasundika – uvulitis, elongated uvula
–         Tundikeri – Enlarged tonsil / tonsillitis
–         Adhrusa – palatitis
–         Kacchapa – adenoma of the palate
–         Arbuda – sarcoma of the palate
–         Mamsasamghata – fibroma
–         Talupuppta – epulis of the palate
–         Talusosha  – dryness of the palate
–         Talupaka – suppuration / ulceration of the palate

(Ref – Sushruta Nidana Chapter 16)

Therapy of Talugata Rogas

The therapies for a similar have been enumerated in Sushruta Chikitsa Sthana Chapter 22.

Galasundika – With the assistance of a forceps galasundika ought to be pulled after which lower with mandalagra sastra (sharp instrument). Later, paste of marica, ativișa, pāțhā, vacā, kustha, kutannata and lavana (saindhava) added with honey ought to be utilized. Gargle ought to be carried out with decoction of vacha, ativisa, patha, rasna, katukarohini and pichumanda. Tablets made with Ingudi, kinihi, danti, sarala (trivrt) and suradāru ought to be saved in mouth. Later the affected person ought to inhale kapha mitigating smoke. He ought to eat meals which incorporates inexperienced gram soup added with yavakshara.

InTundikeri, Adhrusa, Kurma (tālukaccapa), Talusanghāta and Tālupuppuța – the identical therapies ought to be adopted and particularly surgery ought to be carried out.

In Tālupaka – pitta mitigating therapies ought to be carried out.

In Talusosa – oleation, sudation (fomentation) and vata mitigating therapies ought to be adopted.

Ailments during which Talu is concerned

Talu shosha i.e. dryness of the palate is talked about as –

1.     Purvarupa (premonitory symptom) in Rajayakshma (tuberculosis, phthisis)
2.     Upadrava (complication) in Trshna (thirst illness)
3.     Symptom of Upasargaja Trshna
4.     Symptom of trshnaja, kshayaja and kshataja daha (burning sensation)
5.     Symptom of vataja pratishyaya (chilly / rhinitis brought on by predominantly vitiated vata)

Talu Vidirana i.e. cracks in palate is talked about as a symptom of dantasaushira which is a illness of dantamula i.e. gum.

Talu – Surgical procedure hyperlink

Tala Yantra – is among the yantras (blunt devices) defined in Ayurveda. These devices have a flat disc at their entrance finish, whose form resembles that of a palate. Tala pertains to talu (palate formed). (Ref Sushruta Sutra Chapter 7).

तालयन्त्रे द्वदशाङ्गुलेमत्स्यतालवदेकतालद्वितालके,कर्णनासानाडीशल्यानामाहरणर्थम् ॥१२॥
tālayantre dvadaśāṅgulematsyatālavadekatāladvitālake,karṇanāsānāḍīśalyānāmāharaṇartham ||12||

Size – Tala Yantras are of 12 angulas (24 cm) in size.

Forms of Tala Yantra – Tala yantras are of two varieties –

1.     Eka tala – having one disc resembling the palate of the fish

2.     Dwi tala – having two discs resembling the palate of the fish

They’re used for eradicating overseas our bodies from the ear, nostril and sinuses.

Associated Studying – Talu – Fashionable Side