In vitro manufacturing of cat-restricted Toxoplasma pre-sexual phases

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Parasites and human cell cultures

Main HFFs (ATCC CCL-171) have been cultured in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle medium (Invitrogen) supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum (Invitrogen), 10 mM 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazine-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) buffer pH 7.2, 2 mM l-glutamine and 50 μg ml−1 penicillin and streptomycin (Invitrogen). Cells have been incubated at 37 °C and 5% CO2. Toxoplasma strains used on this examine and listed in Supplementary Desk 1 have been maintained in vitro by serial passage on monolayers of HFFs. Cultures have been freed from mycoplasma as decided by qualitative PCR.

Reagents

The next major antibodies have been used within the immunofluorescence, immunoblotting and/or ChIP assays: rabbit anti-TgHDAC3 (Analysis Useful resource Identifier (RRID): AB_2713903), rabbit anti-TgGAP45 (reward from Prof. Dominique Soldati), mouse anti-HA tag (Roche, RRID: AB_2314622), rabbit anti-HA Tag (Cell Signaling Know-how, RRID: AB_1549585), rabbit anti-mCherry (Cell Signaling Know-how, RRID: AB_2799246), rabbit anti-Flag (Cell Signaling Know-how, RRID: AB_2798687), mouse anti-MYC clone 9B11 (RRID: AB_2148465), H3K9me3 (Diagenode, RRID: AB_2616044), rabbit anti-acetyl-histone H4, pan (Lys5,8,12) (Millipore, RRID: AB_310270), rat anti-IMC7 and centrin 1 (reward from Prof. M. J. Gubbels), mouse anti-IMC1 (reward from Prof. G. E. Ward), mouse anti-AtRx antibody clone 11G8 (ref. 24) and mouse anti-GRA11b14. We’ve additionally raised do-it-yourself antibodies to linear peptides in rabbits comparable to the next proteins: MORC_Peptide2 (C+SGAPIWTGERGSGA); AP2XI-2 (C+HAFKTRRTEAAT); TGME49_273980 or GRA80 (C+RPPWAPGAGPEN); TGME49_243940 or GRA81 (C+QKELAEVAQRALEN); TGME49_277230 or GRA82 (C+SDVNTEGDATVANPE); TGME49_209985 or ROP26 (CQETVQGNGETQL); SRS48 household (CKALIEVKGVPK); SRS59B or Okay (C+IHVPGTDSTSSGPGS); TGME49_314250 or BRP1 (C+QVKEGTKNNKGLSDK); TGME49_307640 or CK2 kinase (C+IRAQYHAYKGKYSHA); and TGME49_306455 (C+DGRTPVDRVFEE). They have been manufactured by Eurogentec and used for immunofluorescence, immunoblotting and/or ChIP. Secondary immunofluorescent antibodies have been coupled with Alexa Fluor 488 or Alexa Fluor 594 (Thermo Fisher Scientific). Secondary antibodies utilized in western blotting have been conjugated to alkaline phosphatase (Promega).

Auxin-induced degradation

Degradation of AP2XII-1–mAID–HA, AP2XI-2–mAID–HA and AP2XII-1–mAID–HA plus AP2XI-2–mAID–MYC was achieved with IAA (Sigma-Aldrich quantity 45533). A inventory of 500 mM IAA dissolved in 100% ethanol at a ratio of 1:1,000 was used to degrade mAID-tagged proteins to a closing focus of 500 μM. The mock remedy consisted of an equal quantity of 100% ethanol at a closing focus of 0.0789% (w/v). To watch the degradation of mAID-tagged proteins, parasites grown in HFF monolayers have been handled with auxin or ethanol alone for varied time intervals at 37 °C. After remedy, parasites have been collected and analysed by immunofluorescence or western blotting.

Immunofluorescence microscopy

Toxoplasma-infected HFF cells grown on coverslips have been mounted in 3% formaldehyde for 20 min at room temperature, permeabilized with 0.1% (v/v) Triton X-100 for 15 min, and blocked in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing 3% (w/v) BSA. Cells have been then incubated with major antibodies for 1 h, adopted by the addition of secondary antibodies conjugated to Alexa Fluor 488 or 594 (Molecular Probes). Nuclei have been stained with Hoechst 33258 (2 μg ml−1 in PBS) for 10 min at room temperature. After washing 4 instances in PBS, coverslips have been mounted on a glass slide with Mowiol mounting medium, and pictures have been acquired with a fluorescence microscope ZEISS ApoTome.2 and processed with ZEN software program (Carl Zeiss).

For IFA of in vivo phases within the cat, small intestines of contaminated kittens from a earlier examine16 embedded in paraffin have been sectioned to three μm and dried in a single day at 37 °C. Deparaffinization was carried out first thrice for two min in xylene, after which the sections have been washed twice for 1 min in 100% ethanol and eventually rehydrated sequentially for 1 min in 96% ethanol, after which 70% ethanol and water. For antigen retrieval, samples have been boiled in a stress cooker for 20 min in citrate buffer at pH 6.1 (Dako Goal Retrieval Resolution, S2369) and transferred to water. Cells have been permeabilized in 0.3% Triton X-100 in PBS and blocked with fetal calf serum (FCS). Staining was carried out in a single day at 4 °C utilizing the next mixtures: mouse anti-GRA11b14 with rabbit anti-GRA80, anti-IMC1 or anti-GAP45 (the final two being presents from Prof. Dominique Soldati) or rabbit anti-GRA80 with rat immune serum recognizing merozoite proteins in 20% FCS and 0.3% Triton X-100 in PBS. The samples have been then washed and incubated with 1 μg ml−1 DAPI, 20% FCS and 0.3% Triton X-100 in PBS and applicable mixtures of anti-rabbit Alexa Fluor 488, 555 or 594 (Invitrogen, A11070, A32794 or A11072) with anti-mouse Alexa Fluor 488, 594 or 647 (Invitrogen, A11017, A11005 or A21235) or anti-rat Alexa Fluor 488 (Invitrogen, A11006) with anti-rabbit Alexa Fluor 594 (Invitrogen, A11072) for 1 h at room temperature. After three washes, samples have been mounted with Vectashield and imaged both with a Leica DMI 6000 B epi-fluorescence microscope or a Leica SP8 confocal microscope. Confocal pictures have been deconvoluted utilizing SVI Huygens Skilled. Most-intensity projections have been carried out utilizing FIJI 2.9.1.

Transmission electron microscopy

For ultrastructural observations, Toxoplasma-infected HFFs grown as monolayers on a 6-well dish have been uncovered to 500 µM IAA or ethanol solvent as described above earlier than fixation 24 h or 40 h post-infection in 2.5% glutaraldehyde in 0.1 mM sodium cacodylate (pH 7.4) and processed as described beforehand44. Ultrathin sections of contaminated cells have been stained with osmium tetraoxide earlier than examination with a Hitachi 7600 electron microscope beneath 80 kV geared up with a twin AMT CCD digicam system.

Western blot

Immunoblot evaluation of protein was carried out as described in ref. 45. Briefly, about 107 cells have been lysed and sonicated in 50 μl lysis buffer (10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 6.8, 0.5% SDS (v/v), 10% glycerol (v/v), 1 mM EDTA and protease inhibitor cocktail). Proteins have been separated utilizing SDS–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, transferred by liquid switch to a polyvinylidene fluoride membrane (Immobilon-P; EMD Millipore), and western blots have been probed with the suitable major antibodies and alkaline phosphatase-conjugated or horseradish peroxidase-conjugated secondary goat antibodies. Indicators have been detected utilizing NBT-BCIP (Amresco) or an enhanced chemiluminescence system (Thermo Scientific).

Plasmid building

The plasmids and primers used on this work for the genes of curiosity (GOIs) are listed in Supplementary Desk 1. To assemble the vector pLIC-GOI-HA-Flag, pLIC-GOI-mAID-HA or pLIC-GOI-mAID-(MYC)2, the coding sequence of the GOI was amplified with the primers LIC-GOI-Fwd and LIC-GOI-Rev utilizing genomic Toxoplasma DNA as a template. The ensuing PCR product was cloned into the vector pLIC-HF-dhfr or pLIC-mCherry-dhfr utilizing the ligation-independent cloning (LIC) methodology. Particular information RNA for the GOI, based mostly on the CRISPR–cas9 modifying methodology, was cloned into the plasmid pTOXO_Cas9-CRISPR1. Twenty-base oligonucleotides comparable to particular GOIs have been cloned utilizing the Golden Gate technique. Briefly, the primers GOI-gRNA-Fwd and GOI-gRNA-Rev containing the one information RNA concentrating on the genomic sequence of the GOI have been phosphorylated, annealed and ligated into the pTOXO_Cas9-CRISPR plasmid linearized with BsaI, leading to pTOXO_Cas9-CRISPR::sgGOI.

Toxoplasma transfection

Parasite strains have been electroporated with vectors in Cytomix buffer (120 mM KCl, 0.15 mM CaCl2, 10 mM Okay2HPO4 and KH2PO4 pH 7.6, 25 mM HEPES pH 7.6, 2 mM EGTA, 5 mM MgCl2) utilizing a BTX ECM 630 machine (Harvard Equipment). Electroporation was carried out in a 2-mm cuvette at 1,100 V, 25 Ω and 25 µF. Antibiotics (focus) used have been chloramphenicol (20 µM), mycophenolic acid (25 µg ml−1) with xanthine (50 µg ml−1), pyrimethamine (3 µM) or 5-fluorodeoxyuracil (10 µM) as wanted. Secure transgenic parasites have been chosen with the suitable antibiotic, cloned in 96-well plates by limiting dilution, and verified by immunofluorescence assay or genomic evaluation.

Chromatographic purification of Flag-tagged proteins

Toxoplasma extracts from RH∆ku80 or Pru∆ku80 cells stably expressing HA–Flag-tagged AP2XII-1 or AP2XI-2 proteins, respectively, have been incubated with anti-Flag M2 affinity gel (Sigma-Aldrich) for 1 h at 4 °C. Beads have been washed with 10 column volumes of BC500 buffer (20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, 500 mM KCl, 20% glycerol, 1 mM EDTA, 1 mM dithiothreitol, 0.5% NP-40 and protease inhibitors). Certain polypeptides have been eluted stepwise with 250 μg ml−1 Flag peptide (Sigma-Aldrich) diluted in BC100 buffer. For size-exclusion chromatography, protein eluates have been loaded onto a Superose 6 HR 10/30 column equilibrated with BC500. The circulation price was set at 0.35 ml min−1, and 0.5-ml fractions have been collected.

MS-based quantitative analyses of parasite proteomes and AP2 interactomes

Pattern preparation

For proteome-wide analyses, HFF cells have been grown to confluence, contaminated with the RH (AP2XII-1 and AP2XI-2 KD) pressure and handled with IAA for twenty-four h, 32 h and 48 h or mock-treated. Proteins have been extracted utilizing cell lysis buffer (Invitrogen). Three organic replicates have been ready and analysed for every situation. For characterization of HA–Flag-tagged AP2XII-1 or AP2XI-2 interactomes, eluted proteins have been solubilized in Laemmli buffer. Three organic replicates have been ready for every bait protein and for the detrimental management. Proteins have been stacked within the high of a 4–12% NuPAGE gel (Invitrogen) and stained with Coomassie blue R-250 (Bio-Rad) earlier than in-gel digestion utilizing modified trypsin (Promega, sequencing grade) as beforehand described1.

Nanoliquid chromatography coupled to MS/MS analyses

The ensuing peptides have been analysed by on-line nanoliquid chromatography coupled to an MS/MS instrument (Final 3000 RSLCnano and Q-Exactive HF, Thermo Fisher Scientific) utilizing a 360-min gradient for proteome-wide evaluation and a 200-min gradient for interactome characterization. For this, peptides have been sampled on a 300 μm × 5 mm PepMap C18 precolumn and separated in a 200 cm µPAC column (PharmaFluidics) or a 75 μm × 250 mm C18 column (Aurora Technology 2, 1.7 µm, IonOpticks) for, respectively, proteome-wide and interactome analyses. MS and MS/MS knowledge have been acquired utilizing Xcalibur software program model 4.0 (Thermo Scientific).

Protein identification and quantification

Peptides and proteins have been recognized by Mascot (model 2.8.0, Matrix Science) via concomitant searches towards the T. gondii database (ME49 taxonomy, model 58 downloaded from ToxoDB), the Uniprot database (Homo sapiens taxonomy) and a do-it-yourself database containing the sequences of classical contaminant proteins present in proteomic analyses (human keratins, trypsin and so forth). Trypsin was chosen because the enzyme and two missed cleavages have been allowed. Precursor and fragment mass error tolerances have been set, respectively, at 10 and 20 ppm. Peptide modifications allowed through the search have been: carbamidomethyl (C, mounted), acetyl (protein amino terminus, variable) and oxidation (M, variable). The Proline software program (model 2.2.0) was used for the compilation, grouping and filtering of the outcomes (conservation of rank 1 peptides, peptide size ≥ 6 amino acids, false discovery price of peptide-spectrum-match identifications < 1% and minimal of 1 particular peptide per recognized protein group). Proline was then used to hold out an MS1 label-free quantification of the recognized protein teams based mostly on razor and particular peptides.

Statistical analyses

Statistical analyses have been carried out utilizing ProStaR46. Proteins recognized within the reverse and contaminant databases or matched to human sequences have been discarded. For proteome-wide analyses, solely proteins recognized by MS/MS in a minimal of two replicates of 1 situation and quantified within the three replicates of 1 situation have been conserved. After log2 transformation, abundance values have been normalized utilizing the variance-stabilizing normalization methodology, earlier than missing-value imputation (structured least squares algorithm (SLSA) for partially noticed values within the situation and DetQuantile algorithm for completely absent values within the situation). For comparability of every IAA-treated situation to the mock-treated situation, statistical testing was carried out with limma, whereby differentially expressed proteins have been chosen utilizing a log2[FC] cutoff of 1 and a P-value cutoff of 0.01, permitting one to achieve a false discovery price inferior to five% in accordance with the Benjamini–Hochberg estimator. Proteins discovered differentially considerable however recognized by MS/MS in fewer than two replicates, and detected in fewer than three replicates, within the situation wherein they have been discovered to be extra considerable have been invalidated (P worth = 1). Protein abundances measured within the 4 completely different situations have been additionally in contrast globally by ANOVA utilizing Perseus; q values have been obtained by Benjamini–Hochberg correction.

For interactome evaluation, solely proteins recognized by MS/MS within the three replicates of 1 situation and proteins quantified with a minimal of 5 peptides have been conserved. After log2 transformation, abundance values have been normalized by condition-wise median centring, earlier than missing-value imputation (SLSA algorithm for partially noticed values within the situation and DetQuantile algorithm for completely absent values within the situation). Statistical testing was carried out with limma, whereby differentially expressed proteins have been chosen utilizing a P-value cutoff of 0.01 and FC cutoffs of 5 and three, respectively, for comparability of every AP2 interactome with detrimental management and AP2 interactomes collectively, permitting one to achieve a false discovery price inferior to 1% in accordance with the Benjamini–Hochberg estimator. The relative abundances of AP2-associated proteins have been decided utilizing the iBAQ metrics; solely proteins with an iBAQ ratio of at the very least 0.1 in relation to the bait protein have been thought-about.

MS-based proteomic analyses of SEC fractions

Protein bands have been excised from colloidal blue-stained gels (Thermo Fisher Scientific) earlier than in-gel digestion utilizing modified trypsin (Promega, sequencing grade) as beforehand described1. Ensuing peptides have been analysed by on-line nanoliquid chromatography coupled to MS/MS (UltiMate 3000 RSLCnano and Orbitrap Exploris 480, Thermo Scientific). Peptides have been sampled on a 300 µm × 5 mm PepMap C18 precolumn and separated on a 75 µm × 250 mm C18 column (Aurora Technology 2, 1.6 µm, IonOpticks) utilizing a 25-min gradient. MS and MS/MS knowledge have been acquired utilizing Xcalibur model 4.0 (Thermo Scientific). Peptides and proteins have been recognized utilizing Mascot (model 2.8.0) via concomitant searches towards the T. gondii database (ME49 taxonomy, model 58 downloaded from ToxoDB), the Uniprot database (T. ni taxonomy) and a do-it-yourself database containing the sequences of classical contaminant proteins present in proteomic analyses (human keratins, trypsin and so forth). Trypsin/P was chosen because the enzyme and two missed cleavages have been allowed. Precursor and fragment mass error tolerances have been set, respectively, at 10 and 20 ppm. Peptide modifications allowed through the search have been: carbamidomethyl (C, mounted), acetyl (protein N terminus, variable) and oxidation (M, variable). The Proline software program (model 2.2.0) was used for the compilation, grouping and filtering of the outcomes (conservation of rank 1 peptides, peptide size ≥ 6 amino acids, false discovery price of peptide-spectrum-match identifications < 1% and minimal of 1 particular peptide per recognized protein group). iBAQ values have been calculated for every protein group in Proline utilizing MS1 intensities of particular and razor peptides.

ChIP coupled with Illumina sequencing

ChIP

HFF cells have been grown to confluence and contaminated with KD strains as indicated within the determine legends. Collected intracellular parasites have been crosslinked with formaldehyde (closing focus 1%) for 8 min at room temperature, and crosslinking was stopped by addition of glycine (closing focus 0.125 M) for five min at room temperature. The parasites have been lysed in ice-cold lysis buffer A (50 mM HEPES KOH pH 7.5, 140 mM NaCl, 1 mM EDTA, 10% glycerol, 0.5% NP-40, 0.125% Triton X-100 and protease inhibitor cocktail) and after centrifugation, crosslinked chromatin was sheared in buffer B (1 mM EDTA pH 8.0, 0.5 mM EGTA pH 8.0, 10 mM Tris pH 8.0 and protease inhibitor cocktail) by sonication with a Diagenode Biorupter. Samples have been sonicated for 16 cycles (30 s on and 30 s off) to realize a mean dimension of 200–500 base pairs. Sheared chromatin, 5% BSA, a protease inhibitor cocktail, 10% Triton X-100, 10% deoxycholate, magnetic beads coated with DiaMag protein A (Diagenode) and antibodies to epitope tags (HA or MYC) or the protein of curiosity (MORC or HDAC3) have been used for immunoprecipitation. A rabbit IgG antiserum served as a management mock. After in a single day incubation at 4 °C on a rotating wheel, chromatin–antibody complexes have been washed and eluted from the beads utilizing the iDeal ChIP–seq equipment for transcription components (Diagenode) in accordance with the producer’s protocol. Samples have been de-crosslinked by heating for 4 h at 65 °C. DNA was purified utilizing the IPure equipment (Diagenode) and quantified utilizing Qubit Assays (Thermo Fisher Scientific) in accordance with the producer’s protocol. For ChIP–seq, the purified DNA was used for library preparation and subsequently sequenced by Arraystar (USA).

Library preparation, sequencing and knowledge evaluation (Arraystar)

ChIP–seq libraries have been ready in accordance with the Illumina protocol “Making ready Samples for ChIP Sequencing of DNA”. For library preparation, 10 ng of DNA from every pattern was transformed to blunt-end phosphorylated DNA fragments utilizing T4 DNA polymerase, Klenow polymerase and T4 polymerase (NEB); an ‘A’ base was added to the three′ finish of the blunt-end phosphorylated DNA fragments utilizing the polymerase exercise of Klenow (Exo-Minus) polymerase (NEB); Illumina genomic adapters have been ligated to the A-tailed DNA fragments; PCR amplification to complement the ligated fragments was carried out utilizing Phusion Excessive Constancy PCR Grasp Combine with HF Buffer (Finnzymes Oy). The enriched product of about 200–700 bp was excised from the gel and purified. For sequencing, the library was denatured with 0.1 M NaOH to generate single-stranded DNA molecules and loaded into circulation cell channels at a focus of 8 pM and amplified in situ utilizing TruSeq Fast SR cluster equipment (quantity GD-402-4001, Illumina). Sequencing was carried out for 100 cycles on the Illumina HiSeq 4000 in accordance with the producer’s directions. For knowledge evaluation, after the sequencing platform generated the sequencing pictures, the phases of picture evaluation and base calling have been carried out utilizing Off-Line Basecaller software program (OLB V1.8). After passing the Solexa CHASTITY high quality filter, the clear reads have been aligned to the T. gondii reference genome (TGME49) utilizing BOWTIE V2 after which transformed and sorted utilizing Bamtools. Aligned reads have been used for peak calling of the ChIP-enriched peaks utilizing MACS v2.2 with a cutoff P worth of 10−4. For Built-in Genome Browser visualization and gene-centred evaluation utilizing Deeptools, MACS2-generated bedgraph recordsdata have been processed with the command ‘type -k1,1 -k2,2n 5_treat_pileup.bdg > 5_treat_pileup-sorted.bdg’, after which transformed utilizing the BedGraphToBigWig program (ENCODE venture). The Deeptools evaluation was generated utilizing the command computeMatrix reference level, with the next parameters: –minThreshold 2, –binSize 10 and –averageTypeBins sum. Plotprofile or warmth map was then used with okay-means clustering when relevant. Inter-sample comparisons have been obtained utilizing the nf-core ChIP–seq workflow with customary parameters47. From this pipeline, HOMER (annotatePeaks) was used to analyse peak distribution relative to gene options. All of those uncooked and processed recordsdata might be discovered at GSE222819.

RNA-seq and sequence alignment

Complete RNAs have been extracted and purified utilizing TRIzol (Invitrogen) and RNeasy Plus Mini Package (Qiagen). RNA amount and high quality have been measured utilizing a NanoDrop 2000 (Thermo Scientific). For every situation, RNAs have been ready from three organic replicates. RNA integrity was assessed by customary non-denaturing 1.2% TBE agarose gel electrophoresis. RNA-seq was carried out following customary Illumina protocols, by Novogene (Cambridge, UK). Briefly, RNA amount, integrity and purity have been decided utilizing the Agilent 5400 Fragment Analyzer System (Agilent Applied sciences). The RNA high quality quantity ranged from 7.8 to 10 for all samples, which was thought-about ample. mRNAs have been purified from complete RNA utilizing poly-T oligonucleotide-attached magnetic beads. After fragmentation, the first-strand cDNA was synthesized utilizing random hexamer primers. Then the second-strand cDNA was synthesized utilizing dUTP, as a substitute of dTTP. The directional library was prepared after finish restore, A-tailing, adapter ligation, dimension choice, USER enzyme digestion, amplification and purification. The library was checked with Qubit and real-time PCR for quantification and a bioanalyser for dimension distribution detection. Quantified libraries have been pooled and sequenced on Illumina platforms, in accordance with efficient library focus and knowledge quantity. The samples have been sequenced on the Illumina NovaSeq platform (2 × 150 bp, strand-specific sequencing) and generated about 40 million paired-end reads for every pattern. The standard of the uncooked sequencing reads was assessed utilizing FastQC (https://www.bioinformatics.babraham.ac.uk/initiatives/fastqc/) and MultiQC. For quantification and normalization of the expression knowledge, the FASTQ reads have been aligned to the ToxoDB-49 construct of the T. gondii ME49 genome utilizing Subread model 2.0.1 with the next choices: subread-align -d 50 -D 600–sortReadsByCoordinates. Learn counts for every gene have been calculated utilizing featureCounts from the Subread bundle. Differential expression evaluation was carried out utilizing DESeq2 and default settings throughout the iDEP.96 net interface48. Transcripts have been quantified and normalized utilizing TPMCalculator. The Illumina RNA-seq dataset generated throughout this examine is offered on the Nationwide Middle for Biotechnology Data: BioProject quantity PRJNA921935.

Nanopore direct RNA-seq

The mRNA library preparation adopted the SQK-RNA002 equipment (Oxford Nanopore)–advisable protocol; the one modification was the enter mRNA amount elevated from 500 to 1,000 ng, and all different consumables and parameters have been customary. Remaining yields have been evaluated utilizing the Qubit HS dsDNA equipment (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Q32851) with minimal RNA preparations reaching at the very least 200 ng. For all situations, sequencing was carried out on FLO-MIN106 circulation cells utilizing both a MinION MK1C or MinION sequencer. All datasets have been subsequently base referred to as (high-accuracy base calling) with a Guppy model larger than 5.0.1 with a Q rating cutoff of >7. Lengthy-read alignment was carried out by Minimap2 as beforehand described49. Sam recordsdata have been transformed to bam and sorted utilizing Samtools 1.4. Alignments have been transformed and sorted utilizing Samtools 1.4.1. For the three described samples, Toxoplasma aligned reads vary between 600,000 and 800,000. The Nanopore direct RNA-seq dataset is offered on the Nationwide Middle for Biotechnology Data: BioProject quantity PRJNA921935.

ATAC–seq

Intracellular tachyzoites (non-treated or IAA handled for twenty-four h) have been ready utilizing HFF cell monolayers in a T175 format, which was freshly scraped, gently homogenized by pipetting and centrifuged at 500g. Earlier than initiating the transposition protocol, the pellet was gently washed with heat Dulbecco’s PBS (Life applied sciences) and resuspended in 500 μl of chilly PBS + protease inhibitor (Diagenode equipment). Nuclei preparation, permeabilization, Tn5 transposition and library preparation was carried out following exactly the Diagenode ATAC–seq equipment protocol (C01080002). Nucleus permeabilization was carried out on an estimated 100,000 tachyzoites by diluting 10 μl of Dulbecco’s cell suspension (from one T175 resuspended in 500 μl) in 240 μl of Dulbecco’s PBS + protease inhibitor (1/25 dilution). From this dilution, 50 μl was then taken to hold out the transposition response. Of be aware, the permeabilization protocol used a 3-min 0.02% digitonin (Promega) publicity. Following the Tn5 response, libraries have been amplified utilizing the Diagenode 24 UDI equipment 1 (ref 01011034) following customary protocol procedures. Libraries have been multiplexed and sequenced on a single Novaseq6000 lane by Fasteris (Genesupport SA) utilizing 2 × 50 cycles, producing on common 27 million reads. Demultiplexing of uncooked reads was carried out by bcl2fastq V3, and trimming, high quality management, alignment to the ME49 reference genome (utilizing bwa2) and duplicate learn merging (utilizing Picard) have been carried out by the nf-core ATAQ-SEQ pipeline47. For Built-in Genome Browser visualization and gene-centred evaluation utilizing Deeptools, Picard merged bam recordsdata have been transformed to bigWig file format utilizing a bin dimension of 5 by bamCoverage (Deeptools). The Deeptools evaluation was then generated utilizing ‘computeMatrix reference level’, with the next parameters: –minThreshold 2,–binSize 10 and –averageTypeBins sum. Quantitative evaluation of untreated versus 24-h IAA situations was carried out by nf-core via a broad peak calling and annotation (MACS2) adopted by HOMER (annotatePeaks) to analyse peak distribution relative to gene options. Reads have been counted on annotated peaks by featureCounts and counts have been processed by DeSeq2 to generate international statistical evaluation of peak intensities between situations utilizing organic duplicates. All of those uncooked and processed recordsdata might be discovered at GSE222832.

Gene synthesis for recombinant coexpression of T. gondii AP2XI-2 and AP2XII-I

Gene synthesis for all insect cell codon-optimized constructs was offered by GenScript. (Strep)2–APXI-2 and AP2XII-1–Flag or AP2IX-6–Flag genes have been cloned throughout the coexpression donor vector pFastBac twin, which accepts two constructs. The (Strep)2–AP2XI-2 expression cassette was derived from the TGME49_310900 gene with a fused twin Strep tag and tobacco etch virus (TEV) web site within the N terminus. AP2XII-1–Flag or AP2IX-6–Flag was derived from the full-length TGME49_218960 and TGME49_290180 genes, respectively, with an extra non-cleavable Flag tag on the carboxy terminus. The (Strep)2–AP2XI-2 expression cassette was beneath the management of the polyhedrin promoter; the AP2XII-1–Flag or AP2IX-6–Flag was beneath the management of the P10 promoter.

Technology of baculovirus

Bacmid cloning steps and baculovirus technology have been carried out utilizing EMBacY baculovirus (reward from I. Berger), which comprises a yellow fluorescent protein reporter gene within the virus spine. The established customary cloning and transfection protocols arrange throughout the EMBL Grenoble eukaryotic expression facility have been used. Though baculovirus synthesis (V0) and amplification (to V1) have been carried out with SF21 cells cultured in SF900 III medium (Life Applied sciences), large-scale expression cultures have been carried out with Hello-5 cells cultured within the protein-free ESF 921 insect cell tradition medium (Expression System) and contaminated with 0.8–1.0% (v/v) of technology 2 (V1) baculovirus suspensions and picked up 72 h after an infection.

(Strep)2–AP2XI-2 and AP2XII-1–Flag or (Strep)2–AP2XI-2 and AP2XIX-6–Flag expression and purification

For purification, three cell pellets of bout 500 ml of Hello-5 tradition have been every resuspended in 50 ml of lysis buffer (50 mM Tris (pH 8.0), 400 mM NaCl and a pair of mM β-mercaptoethanol (BME)) within the presence of an anti-protease cocktail (Full EDTA-free, Roche) and 1 μl of Benzonase (Merck Millipore, 70746). Lysis was carried out on ice by sonication for 3 min (30-s on/ 30-s off, 45° amplitude). After the lysis step, 10% of glycerol was added. Clarification was then carried out by centrifugation for 1 h at 16,000g and 4 °C and vacuum filtration utilizing 45-μm nylon filter techniques (SteriFlip, Merck Millipore). Earlier than purification, tetrameric avidin (Biolock, IBA Lifescience) was added to the clarified lysate (1/1,000 v/v), which was then batch incubated for 20 min with 3 ml of Strep-Tactin XT (IBA Lifescience). Following the incubation, the resin was retained on a glass column and washed thrice utilizing 6 ml of lysis buffer (W1), 6 ml of lysis buffer with NaCl content material at 1 M (W2) and 6 ml of lysis buffer (W3). The elution was then carried out utilizing 1× BXT buffer (IBA Lifescience) containing 50 mM biotin, 100 mM Tris pH 8 and 150 mM NaCl. This preliminary 1× resolution was additional supplemented with 300 mM NaCl, 2 mM BME and 10% glycerol. Following Strep-Tactin XT elution, the pattern was concentrated to 500 μl utilizing a 100-kDa concentrator (Amicon Extremely 4, Merck Millipore) injected on an ÄKTA pure FPLC utilizing a Superose 6 Enhance column 10/300 GL (Cytiva) working in 50 mM Tris pH 8, 400 mM NaCl and 1 mM BME.

Mouse an infection and experimental survey

Six-week-old NMRI, CD1 or BALB/c mice have been obtained from Janvier Laboratories. Feminine mice have been used for all research. For intraperitoneal an infection, tachyzoites have been grown in vitro and extracted from host cells by passage via a 27-gauge needle, washed thrice in PBS, and quantified with a haemocytometer. Parasites have been diluted in Hank’s balanced salt resolution (Life), and mice have been inoculated by the intraperitoneal route with tachyzoites of every pressure (in 200 μl quantity) utilizing a 28-gauge needle. Animal euthanasia was accomplished in an authorised CO2 chamber. For immunolabelling on histological sections of the brains, the brains have been faraway from mice, fully embedded in a paraffin wax block and reduce into 5-μm-thick layers utilizing a microtome.

Statistics and reproducibility

Pattern sizes weren’t predetermined and have been chosen in accordance with earlier literature. Experiments have been carried out in organic replicates and offered constant statistically related outcomes. No methodology of randomization was used. All experiments have been carried out in unbiased organic replicates as acknowledged for every experiment within the manuscript. All corresponding remedy and management samples from ChIP–seq and RNA-seq have been processed on the similar time to reduce technical variation. Investigators weren’t blinded through the experiments. Statistical significance was evaluated utilizing P values from unpaired two-tailed Pupil t-tests. Information are offered because the imply ± s.d. Significance was set to a P worth of <0.05. The entire micrographs proven are representatives from three independently carried out experiments, with related outcomes obtained.

Ethics assertion

Mouse care and experimental procedures have been carried out beneath pathogen-free situations in accordance with established institutional steering and authorised protocols from the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of the College Grenoble Alpes (APAFIS quantity 4536-2016031 017075121 v5). Animal experiments have been carried out beneath the direct supervision of a veterinary specialist, and in accordance with Swiss legislation and tips on Animal Welfare and the particular rules of the Canton of Zurich beneath allow numbers 130/2012 and 019/2016, as authorised by the Veterinary Workplace and the Ethics Committee of the Canton of Zurich (Kantonales Veterinäramt Zürich).

Reporting abstract

Additional info on analysis design is offered within the Nature Portfolio Reporting Abstract linked to this text.

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